We have paid special attention to the FAQ section (Frequent Asked Questions). This is not about the usual stereotypical fiction of general questions about the Microneedling, but about their precise answer. (For many terms and foreign words you will find detailed answers on the Internet).
The answers given by us are based on 20 years of experience with the Microneedling. This includes the observations and findings of many physicians, clinical institutions and other research areas. In no case do they claim to be complete, nor are they to be understood as an invitation to therapeutic acting. The information published are not for self-diagnosis and do not replace a doctor's diagnosis. We reject a liability in any case.
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Physiology of Microneedling
Physiology of Microneedling
Physiology is the science of the functions and processes in the human organism.
Microneedling can only be understood if you have read the following chapter. To understand, you have to read, you have to learn - for a lifetime. And nothing is more exciting than life itself. (Author's note).
The path to knowledge is infinitely long and laborious. Our current knowledge of cellular functions and the processes of communication between them are far from being fully explored.
The knowledge of humanity did not come overnight, but is based on the research of those who lived long before us. So it is with Microneedling and with the questions: What happens in the skin after a wound? How do our cells communicate? What happens in wound closure? How do new cells form? The physiological processes after microneedling are of particular interest to us.
Looking Back: Scientists of the 19th and 20th centuries suggested that our body cells communicate with each other with the help of chemical and electrical signals. This assumption was to prove.
Burr and Ravitz discovered the phenomenon that salamanders (from the family of amphibians) after the loss of a limb (leg or tail) replaced this with a new one. They found that the wound at the amputation site was "electrically negatively" charged". O. Becker, a doctor from New York, observed the same phenomenon. He had finer methods of measurement and examined the physiological processes after the loss of a leg on a frog. After the amputation of a leg, nothing happened! The frog was no longer able to replace the lost limb. Why? Becker found that the amputation stump was "positively" charged. From this he concluded that amphibians and frogs did not belong to the same evolutionary stage. He put a negative tension on the frog's wound and what happened: a new leg grew.
His conclusions: The wound closure and new cells are controlled by electrical signals and the polarity of the electrical voltage. This type of communication is called "electriotaxis".
The reader will now ask: What has this knowledge to do with the Microneedling? A whole lot! Continue reading!
Other researchers found that the human skin also builds up electrical fields. With fine measuring electrodes, they found that the surface of the epidermis is "negativly charged" and skin's inside, the intercellular spaces of the dermis, are "positively" charged. They called this phenomenon: "The human battery" - a battery with two poles, plus and minus. Its electrical voltage can be measured at all points of the body. It varies from 0.10 to 64 mV (millivolts), on average: 23.4 mV. Electricity is nothing else but the flow of electrons or "ions", as they are called in cell biology. The electrical complex is also called Epidermal Electrical Potential (EEP) = Epidermal Electrical Potential.
To understand this, a small example from everyday life helps us. Almost everyone has a portable phone (cell phone). And everyone knows that its battery (more precisely accumulator) has to be recharged after use. Why? The charger sends new, negatively and positively charged electrons to the poles with their storage plates. The different charged electrons are thus opposite each other and are in a "tension" to each other.
Now the smart layman wonders: How is our epidermis battery recharged? Quite simply: The organism generates its own ions. Our sweat consists of water and electrically charged sodium and potassium ions. They are distributed on the skin surface and circulate through so-called "ion-channels" through the epidermis. This constant ion current generates the measured electrical voltage.
The cell phone batteries are so flat that they almost equalize in thickness of the "epidermis battery" (only in many years). When the two poles of the battery are connected to a "consumer" (for example, an LED or the chips in the cell phone), a current flows through them and activates the consumer: the LED lights up - the mobile phone is transmitting. Now happens the misfortune that the owner sits on his cell phone, the following happens: The inner insulation layer between the pole plates is destroyed. The two poles (plus and minus) are pressed together and there is a short circuit. This can be so violent that a fire arises.
And now let's take a closer look at the skin.
When a fine atraumatic (non-injurious) needle penetrates the epidermis, its integrity as such is preserved. Nothing is cut or destroyed. It can be said that the skin cells are merely pushed aside. But: as small as the needle channel may be, now it comes to a short circuit in the "epidermis battery" .
Let's stop briefly at this point and look one floor deeper into the dermis. Millions of cells circulate in an aqueous fluid in the framework of collagen fibers. In medicine his intercellular space is called "interstitium". The cell fluid is slightly salty, similar to seawater, and positively charged. The sour feature facilitates the transport of electrical signals.
Let's look at a cell, e.g. at a fibroblast, to be more precisely. (They are the suppliers of new collagen fibers). All cells are surrounded by a membrane (like a balloon). It also "isolates" the negatively charged electrical potential inside the cell from the interstitium. (Its energy refers to each cell from their own power plant, called the mitochondrion). The voltage in a cell is around -90mV (Jaffe et al.). At rest, the electrical complex of a cell is also called Electrical Resting Potetential (ERP).
The activity of each body cell is genetically determined. In order to change its activity, it needs an external (epigenetic) influence.
The following happens in microneedling: The penetration of the needles into the epidermis causes a short circuit. Its potential (EEP) collapses. The electrical resting potential of each skin cell shares with the epidermis potential the common positive pole (interstitium). Both potentials connect a (potential) equilibrium at rest.
The skin cell registers (at puncture) the collapse of the epidermal battery. This creates a (potential) imbalance, the cell wants (must) to restore in any case. For this it needs additional electrical energy. It generates this energy increase herself. Her membrane suddenly becomes permeable. Channels open in the membrane wall, exchanging potassium and sodium ions in rapid order and within milliseconds. The cell pumps up electrically until it reaches about -140 mV. This increased electrical voltage creates an extended (elevated) electromagnetic field (EMF). (In practical terms, this can be compared with a transmitter that suddenly increases its power and thus range). An active electrical potential has been created (AEP). This is sufficient and strong enough to trigger the gene switches to command cell division. This process is called gene expression.
Stem cells begin to divide, new cells emerge and differentiate (transform) into "specialized" cells, such as keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, etc. Keratinocytes migrate to the (supposed) injury point and occlude it under normal circumstances. However, since there was no "real" injury from the microneedle, the new cells are basically superfluous. The epidermis welcomes the new cells. The newcomers integrate into the existing cell structure and reinforce it. The epidermis is getting thicker!* New and additional collagen structures are forming in the upper dermis, as observed by the plastic surgeon Martin Schwarz.
This explains and scientifically proves that the skin benefits from Microneedling.
* (International Publication: Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles, Horst Liebl, Luther C. Kloth, PT, MS, FAPTA, CWS, FACCWSb, Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881, USA , 2013 Elsevier).
The right needle length
THIS POINT HAS BEEN SUBJECT TO AN POINTLESS DISPUTE.
Let's look at our skin. It is roughly divided into 3 layers: epidermis - dermis - subdermis. Overall, (facial-) skin is around 1.5mm thick. Even an adipose human has no thicker dermis, at most a thicker subdermal adipose tissue.
The long-needle hype started with a surgeon from South Africa. He and his followers swear by long needles. They represent the nonsensical philosophy that the skin must be needled "rigerosly - so that blood flows". They believe that blood-borne "growth factors" (TGF, etc.) accelerate skin rejuvenation. - What a mistake!
The true "battlefield" of the beauty industry, from cosmetics manufacturers to plastic surgeons, is the epidermis. It is our outer shield, the barrier against all possible pathogenic intrudors from the environment. It is just 0.12 to 0.15 mm thick. (A human hair is about 6 times thicker). 0.15 mm corresponds to the thickness of a normal packaging film. The basis of the epidermis forms the so-called "basal layer", which separates it by an underlying membrane from the dermis. The basal layer could also be called the true "fountain of youth" of the skin.
Microneedles set only an "injury stimulus" (no real injury in the classical sense). The resulting reaction is transmitted to the surrounding cells by "electrotaxis means" (about 1 mm around a cell). Stem cells divide and transform into differentiated cells such as melanocytes and keratinocytes. Since there is no wound to be supplied, this cell surplus integrates itself into the existing epidermal structure. The epidermis becomes thicker again. New collagen structures are formed in the upper dermis, directly below the basal membrane to a depth of about 0.6 mm. New anchor collagens of type VI and VII again connect the interface between dermis and epidermis. All these processes could be proven beyond doubt in the gene sequencer. During the run, all (approximately) 23,000 genes of untreated and needled skin (with 0.2 mm long needles) were compared for their gene expression. Conclusion: Maximum 0.5 mm long needles are the choice!
Is microneedling painful?
This question can only be answered in a differentiated way.
a) ACS-PEN for skin improvement:
This is a precision device with a precisely determinable needle length. It is electrically driven and works with a stitch frequency of 120 Hz (stitches / second). The device is guided vertically over the skin. However, with a set needle length of 0.5 mm, the needles penetrate the epidermis only 0.3 to 0.4 mm. This is explained by the flexibility of the skin, which provides some resistance to the needles. At this length, there is hardly any contact of the nerve receptors that terminate in the dermis just below the basal layer. Lower capillaries are virtually untouched, and thus bleeding is virtually eliminated.
ACS Microneedling with 0.5 mm needles feels like a slight tingling sensation at best. There can be no question of pain. In no case, anaesthesia of the skin is necessary!
b) Needle rollers
In this case, providers on the Internet outdo each other with needle lengths of up to 3.0 mm. These needle lengths are extremely painful and require anaesthesia of the skin, or even general anaesthesia. This is explained by the round arrangement of the needles. They pierce the skin at a certain angle (approx. 20 to 25 °) and leave them at the same angle. They "plow through" the tissue. This inevitably results in tissue, vascular and nerve ruptures. The consequences are pain and intradermal bleeding (haematoma) and a long healing period with social down time.
c) Tattoo machines
Tattooing is extremely painful. On the one hand, the colour must be pierced very deep (> 1.5 mm), on the other hand, the skin must be intensively needled. Most customers do without anaesthetization of the skin. They see the painful process more as a test of courage and want to demonstrate their heroic attitude. They clench their teeth and endure the martyrdom stoically. - Everyone as he can!
Anaesthetization of the skin can be achieved with so-called numbing creams (Emla®, etc.). Their exposure time is about 40 minutes. But they only have a pain reduction of 30 to 40%, depending on the "pain type" of the customer. For needle lengths over 1.5 mm, local or full anaesthesia is recommended.
Side effects of Microneedling
The injury of the skin by the Microneedling (without color and other active ingredients) has no known side effects, provided that the needles are not longer than 0.5 mm. Proof has been furnished at the Berlin Charité that the puncture channels in the epidermis have completely closed after 15 minutes at the latest. If the microneedling takes place in a sterile environment, the risk of subsequent inflammation is virtually eliminated.
The scientists Dunkin et al. have proven beyond any doubt that skin injuries that do not reach deeper than 0.5 to 0.6 mm into the dermis heal without a scar. The wound closure is controlled by the synthesized collagen type III.
This knowledge is not relevant to a tattoo artist because his intention is to introduce color into the skin. The deeper it penetrates (up to 2 mm), the longer the desired result will last. Also, the cells of the dermis are constantly renewed, albeit much slower than those of the epidermis. Interesting is the scientific investigation that the color pigments are also deposited in the new cells during cell exchange.
Color can only be stored permanently in the skin when the skin is heavily needled. It comes to several 1000 punctures / cm2 and a certain maceration of the skin. This also explains the bleeding during and crusting after tattooing. Skin injuries that are deeper than 0.6 mm, often tattooing down to or into the fascia of the muscles (1.5 to 2.0 mm deep), are largely closed by collagen type I. This type manifests itself in the form of parallel protein bundles in the skin resulting as scars inside the dermis.
What is Microneedling?
Microneedling is the minimally invasive penetration of atraumatic microneedles through the skin surface. The diameters of the round solid needles varies from 0.002 to 0.1.5 mm from the tip to the maximum penetration depth. Their depth of penetration varies, depending on the purpose of the device manufacturer, from 0.2 to 3.0 mm.
The penetration of single or multiple needles through the skin surface into the deeper dermis always results in an injury, even if it can be classified as minimal as in the Microneedling. The organism reacts to any injury, however small it may be, by triggering the wound healing cascade: inflammation - regeneration - maturation. This reaction is independent of whether the skin should only be "needled" (so-called "dry needling") or whether in this process agents or colours (as in tattooing) are introduced into deeper skin layers (so-called "wet needling").
Any type of Microneedling (with or without active ingredients or colour) triggers certain physiological processes in the basal layer (germination layer of the epidermis). One of these is a significant increase in keratinocytes (horn platelets)*. This ultimately leads to a thickening of the epidermis. This phenomenon is particularly noticeable with repeated needling (tattooing) of the same skin site.
*(The proliferation of different cell types after the microneedling could be clearly demonstrated in investigations in the gene sequencer).
Differences between ACS-PEN and tattoo machines
For the first time, the ACS-PEN has technically succeeded in converting the rotary motion of a vertically mounted engine into a horizontal rotary motion via a noiseless and lubricant-free gearbox. This is then converted via a connecting rod with piston in a lifting movement. An adjustable scale in conjunction with a protective sleeve guarantee absolutely accurate penetration depths. (The ACS-PEN is a precision device that can only be found in the watch industry).
The powerful electric motor with approx. 6 watts works with a frequency of 120 Hz (strokes / second). In conjunction with the linear arrangement of the needles and the 10 mm wide needle module * (LNM), the ACS-PEN glides over the skin in a very quiet and almost vibration-free manner. The needle arrangement is chosen so that with only one horizontal and one vertical movement over the skin, a gentle maximum number of about 450 micro-punctures / cm2 is not exceeded (see instructions for use IFU). Compared to needle rollers, ACS-PEN treatment is 5 times faster. In the hands of a professional, a facial treatment is completed in less than 10 minutes.
* The needle spacings of the Linear Needle Module are chosen to stimulate optimal cell proliferation.
Appearance, working principle and the loud snarling noise have not changed for almost 100 years - they are cult. One to two strong magnetic coils move a narrow metal bar up and down. At its end, a long rod with the needle carrier is attached, which punctures the needles in the skin and pulls out again.
Tattooists perceive themselves as "artists" and work in terms of needle depth and color intensity of a spot, "with eye and feeling - free from the hand". The needles penetrate between 1 and 2 or more millimeters into the skin. Although the treatment is very painful, anesthetic creams are frowned upon. , The needles soldered at the end of the ram differ roughly in 3 categories: a) single needle, b) needle bundles * of 3 or 5 needles and c) needle ropes * with about 10 adjacent needles. The needles in the bundle or fan must be very close to each other, so that the ink can be held in the spaces by the capillary action.
The stronger the desired color contrast, the more intensively a skin area needs to be needled. Skin maceration, pain, blood and lymph leakage are inevitable. Subsequently the skin is occlusively covered with a foil. The healing time is about 1 week (if no inflammation spreads). Depending on the color pigment, the procedure must be repeated after a certain amount of time to "refresh".
Tattooing today is hype and "almost" sociable. Every customer has to know what he or she is doing, because nobody knows the long-term effects. However, it is already prooven that the pigments remain in the body and can be found in the lymph nodes and urine. In competitive athletes (e.g., footballers), it has been demonstrated that large-area tattoos cause a significant performance loss. Again, the old wisdom applies: "The skin does not forget"!
* Tattooing needles in bundles or fan shapes are too close together, injuring the skin and are therefore unsuitable for "classic microneedling" (dry needling).
They are rod-shaped. On the shaft of a rapidly rotating electric motor (about 9,000 revolutions / minute), a diagonally seated disc is mounted. Every half turn, it pushes down a spring-loaded plunger. During the next half turn he pushes the plunger back up to the disc by spring force. This results in each full turn an up and down movement of the plunger. This in turn pushes a small rod in the attached needle module down, and thus the needles in the skin. Metal springs ensure that the needles are pulled out of the skin again.
Pigmentation machines have a relatively weak motor (about 1 watt, often less). They are designed to push only one needle into the skin, which is completely sufficient for permanent lip contours or eyebrows.
"Smart pigmentation equipment manufacturers" now came up with the "clever idea" of equipping the device with a module with up to 30 needles instead of a needle. Unfortunately, they ignored physics:
1. The engine is far too weak to allow multiple needles to penetrate the skin at the same time.
2. The more needles are distributed on a surface, the more force is needed. Many needles act like a "fakir bed"
a) The engine overheats, the appliance gets uncomfortably hot and needs to be cooled (often in the fridge). In most cases, the life time of the engine is only a few hours.
b) Due to the low engine power, the needles never penetrate with the set needle length.
c) The mass centrifugal forces of the modules increase exponentially. The inertial forces of the return springs also increase rapidly and the needles are no longer completely pulled out of the skin. Skin tears are inevitable.
Pigmentation devices (Derma-Pen, Derma-Stamper, etc.) are not suitable for the "Classic Microneedling"!.
Wrinkles are not a disease but the visible form of tissue alteration due to aging and environmental influences (e.g., UV radiation).
As a reminder: ACS is called: Advanced Cell Stimulation. The micro-needles in the skin cause certain physiological reactions that result in an increase in cell formation. (These procedures are described in detail in the question "Physiology of the Microneedling?").
Mimic wrinkles around the nose to the corners of the mouth and forehead wrinkles are "shaped" by the underlying muscles. An improvement of these wrinkles (glabella and nasolabial folds) by the microneedling is at most 10 to 20%.
Smaller visible wrinkles and fine lines are caused by the age-related degradation of subdermal adipose tissue, dehydration and degradation of the dermis structure, as well as by the decrease in epidermis thickness. The essential factor, however, is the separation of dermis and epidermis. In this case, the connecting collagens VI and VII dissolve. The once smooth skin surface breaks down. These cracks form wrinkles.
Folds at the corners of the eyes are also popularly called "crow's feet", but they are also positively tolerated as "laugh lines". Much more disadvantageous are the wrinkles over the upper lip and under the lower lip. They signal the impression of "old age" not only to the person concerned, but also to the other person. Even with a lift, this type of pleat (also called pleated folds) can not be mastered. In this case, the strength of the ACS-PEN becomes apparent. With four to six treatments, significant improvements can be achieved here.
Scares and Microneedling
Scars are the visible completion of a natural healing process. They are not a disease. As already stated, scars always occur when injuries after accidents or operations reach deeper than 0.6 mm below the surface of the skin (stratum corneum = uppermost skin layer).
Basically, two types of scar can be distinguished: a) hypotrophic scars (also called atrophic or sunken scars). b) hypertrophic scars (also called raised scars).
Both types of scar have one thing in common: they become smaller, fade with time, and approach normal skin levels. This process can take many years. The doctor sees in the scar the completion of his "successful operation", further attention is not necessary. Scars are not treatable from the point of view of conventional medicine and therefore lead from a cosmetic / aesthetic point of view rather a shadowy existence. The question of a further treatment option is usually answered with a shrug. In the best case, a special cream is recommended. Their effect (mostly based on onion extracts) is very limited, if any, scientific evidence in the form of studies on the "gold standard" has never been provided.
Even if the physician is satisfied with the scar closure of his surgical work, scars, especially if they are disfiguring and visible to everyone, can cause severe distress for the person concerned. A good plastic surgeon can help with a correction in some cases, the scar itself he also can not magic away.
Basically, for all scar improvements with Microneedling: the earlier the treatment with the ACS-PEN sets in, the better the chances of success. "Earlier" means: 3 to 4 months after the healing of the scar.
The most common form of this type arises after the healing of inflammatory acne. At least 30% of all adolescents are affected. The reason for their depression is that the inflammation originally reached to the underlying musculature, or to the overlying fascia. This has a similar collagen structure as the scar and both connect via collagen strands. These contract over time and the scar sinks below skin level. (Orentreich used to recommend cutting these scar strands by a so-called "subsission", but accepted that the fine scalpel initiates an additional scar).
Hypotrophic scars, especially acne scars, respond extremely positively to the microneedling. After evaluating extensive images, improvements in the range of 60 to 80% are quite realistic after 2 to 3 treatments with the ACS-PEN.
Hypertrophic scars *
This elevated, often even overshooting type of scar usually arises on the upper body. So in the body region, which is constantly in motion, be it by the permanent breathing or the activity of the arm, back or chest muscles. The scar "does not come to rest". At their edges there are constantly fine cracks, small new scars that contribute to the enlargement of the scar tissue. Hypertrophic scars are often fiery red due to the high blood flow, but they fade over time. Scars have no epidermis, hair or glandular or sweaty gland exits. In the best case, raised scars can be influenced by so-called cryotherapy. (Impressive results in connection with the Microneedling Igor Safonov has published in his book "The Scar Atlas." (Quote H. Liebl: "In my eyes, Igor is the best 'scars corrector' that I've ever met").
They are a hybrid of both scar types. Depending on the accident, very large parts of the body may be affected. Burn scars are not only extremely disfiguring, but also (usually for a lifetime) very painful. The pain mainly occurs at the interface between scarred and healthy tissue. For aesthetic / cosmetic improvements the Microneedling reaches its limits. Nevertheless, it can be helpful in two ways. On the one hand, the scar tissue is stimulated to break down, on the other hand mobility at the interface areas is improved. This in return reduces pain significantly. Example: Burn scar on the neck. Over time, the collagen strands of the scar will contract. Every turning movement of the head becomes more and more painful, its mobility is reduced (to avoid pain).
Needle length and treatment time for scar treatment
Again, the rule is: "Less is often more". In plain language: the needle length should not exceed 0.5 mm. The needles serve only as stimulation for the natural degradation process by the activation of certain enzymes. The enzymatic scar removal also takes time. Thus, several treatments are essential, 2 or much more treatments may be required. (Even a snail needs patience to reach the other side of the road).
These are tumorlike proliferating scars. Their treatment is extremely difficult, recurrences are never excluded. According to Igor Safonov's experience, they are accessible to Microneedling in the "degrading stage" with good results. In any case, the treatment of keloids is in the hands of experienced doctors!
How long does it take to remove scars? What causes the degradation?
A proverb says: "Time heals all wounds". This also applies to the removal of scars. It is a fact that scars fade over time, become smaller and later barely visible. If so, the question arises, what causes the scar to break down? There must be something in the body that we do not (yet) know.
Also in this case, the investigations of needled skin in the gene sequencer were more than helpful. It turned out that genes were switched off or on, which are responsible for the formation of certain enzymes. They belong to the group of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP for short. These enzymes consist of small chains of proteins that break down other (often superfluous) protein formations found in scars. This happens (over time) until the genetically determined pattern of the skin formation is restored.
If the scar has reached a certain level, it is stopped by so-called inhibitors. Through the perforation of the old scar tissue, new collagen structures and capillaries migrate in and neo-collagenesis and neo-angiogenesis visibly improve the scar.
Pigment disorders and Microneedling
Pigment disorders are an uneven distribution of the melanin (dye of the skin). It is continuously produced by melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. If the distribution of the pigments disturbed, it comes to punctual or large-scale deposits.
Our experience in treating pigment disorders with Microneedling is based on three different types of pigment disorders:
a) Melasma, also known by the synonyms Chloasma and Pregnancy Spots, are mainly due to hormonal imbalances. They are usually temporary during pregnancy. In a comprehensive study 10 years ago in the Philippines, the chances of success in a comparison between THC treatment and microneedling were examined. The improvements were about 40% in both cases. The only protection against (treated) melasma are very good sunscreens. If the skin is exposed to UV light again after the treatment, the pigmentation disorders return. (Even neon tubes, which are so popular in Asia, emit UVA. In the house, sunscreen is usually not worn and those concerned were surprised that they noticed pigment changes again).
b) Vitiligo (also called white spot disease)
Vitiligo is a genetic autoimmune disease. The treatment option with the Microneedling was tested intensively at the Inselhospital in Bern / Switzerland and in cooperation with the International Vitiligo Foundation. The successes were unfortunately negative.
c) Pigmentation disorders after inflammatory processes
Especially in medium-dark skin (for example, in India) can be observed in scars, especially in acne scars, pigment deposits in the form of dark spots and stains. These pigmentation disorders respond exceptionally well to the microneedling. Success rates of 80 and more percent were observed in the extensive picture material available to us. This required 2 to 3 treatments every 6 weeks.
New collagen formations after Microneedling
In 2005, Dr. Martin Schwarz, a specialist in plastic surgery in Freiburg, demonstrated in a "double-blind study" the formation of new collagen structures after the microneedling . The increase of these new structures averaged 206%. (In 20 biopsies, only one showed no reaction to the microneedling, that is 5%). Interestingly enough, this collagen increase coincides with the studies in the gene sequencer, which were performed only five years later. It is also interesting to note that, prior to biopsy, specimens were treated with 1.5 mm long needles, and the new type III collagen formations had formed only to a depth of 0.5 to 0.6 mm below the epidermal basement membrane (Neo-Collagenesis). This provided the first evidence that needle lengths of more than 0.5 mm are obsolete. This observation was confirmed by the consistent use of new ACS-PEN that is sold exclusively in France since 2017. These have a fixed needle length of 0.5 mm and still achieve the same thickness of new collagen layers as described above. (That new collagen structures form from bottom to top was simply a misinterpretation of histologies, it is the opposite!).
The Microneedling also improves the blood, nutrient and oxygen supply to the dermis.
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that end up in the dermis just below the basal membrane of the epidermis. They provide the exchange of oxygen and nutrients. Capillaries are only indirectly connected to the blood vessels (veins). If they are injured, a membrane causes them to deflate, but no more blood can flow. When capillaries come into direct or indirect contact with microneedles, their inner lining, the endothelium, responds by sprouting new capillary branches. This results in an increased blood supply. This "improved circulation" becomes visible, making the skin look rosier, fresher and thus "younger" again.
The technical term for the improved blood supply is called: neo-angiogenesis. The growth of new collagen formations is called neo-collagenesis.
Hair loss and Microneedling
Does Microneedling help with hair loss?
There are many forms and causes of hair loss. Many may be permanent or temporary (e.g., chemotherapy) due to illness or external influences. In any case one should consult a specialist.
By far the best known form of male pattern baldness is the so-called androgenetic hair loss. It is hereditary and currently untreatable!
It is unfortunate that innumerable suppliers advertise their miracle tinctures or device-based treatments (laser, LED, etc.) and those affected believe the nonsense. Of course, the (mostly young) sufferers grab after each "straw", from transplantation to so-called "clinically" proven tinctures and shampoos.
To emphasize again: Microneedling does not stimulate hair growth. Whoever claims the opposite lies!
Cosmetics and Microneedling
The word COSMETICS derives from the ancient Greek word "cosmein". It means in English: "to decorate". Jewelry and decoration can only be external. The European Cosmetics Directive also emphasizes that cosmetics may only be used externally. If their purpose were to allow them to intervene in the metabolism, they would automatically become pharmaceutical agents (drugs) subject to very stringent testing and approval criteria. For the layman, it may seem incomprehensible, but the "playground," or "battlefield," if you want to call it that, is the top layer of skin, the so-called called Stratum Corneum.
Although this layer, which is just a hundredth of a millimeter (0.01 mm) thick, similar to a thin food foil, it can be described as an extremely efficient stronghold or barrier against all intruders (e.g. viruses, bacteria and of course cosmetics). In a very extensive study, the University of Marburg/Germany already proved in the year 2000 that only a maximum of 0.03% of the applied creams can penetrate this protective wall within 24 hours. If this percentage is compared with the ingredients of these decorative elements which are very low in cosmetics, the proportion that penetrates into the metabolism is negligible. (The predominant content of cosmetics is water (> 97%) or fats).
Advertising is part of every business. Since cosmetics can make a lot of money, the manufacturers of course also employ an army of copywriters and photographers. (The vast majority of television advertising comes from the food and cosmetics industries). We humans tend to "believe" in fairy tales, beautiful stories and the promises of "eternal youth and beauty". On the other hand, nothing is objectionable - each his own.
It only becomes dangerous when users of devices for Microneedling believe that the "promised beauty and effectiveness" can be substantially increased by introducing cosmetics through the puncture channels into deeper skin layers, i.e. beneath the Stratum Corneum.
The most common acne today is the so-called "acne cosmetica". It is mainly due to the use of the "too much". If now the decorative substances are introduced into the skin, this can become a dangerous boomerang. Allergic reactions to shock can occur.
To emphasize once again: Microneedling is a "stand alone procedure" that does not require any additives to be effective. This also applies to so-called combined treatments such as: Microneedling plus peeling, Microneedling plus HF, Microneedling plus laser, etc.
As already noted, new collagen and vessel formations (neo-collagenesis and neo-angiogenesis) need a little time to regroup. In this case, wonders take a little longer!
Literature about microneedling as pdf-Downloads:
Literature about Microneedling >>
Extract of literature about transdermal delivery of active drugs and vaccines with micro needles >>